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Facility Design

We have prepared these guidelines to help you with your Cold Warehouse Design and the development and construction of new and existing cold storage facilities.

 

Cold Storage Construction Guidelines

Designing a cold storage facility is no simple task.  There are an almost infinite number of factors to consider when planning cold warehouse design.  We have prepared these guidelines to help you in thinking through the development and construction of new and existing cold storage facilities.  Planning is the most important part of the cold storage project since making changes to an existing freezer facility can be very costly and very time consuming.  Your cold storage facility should ultimately be designed to service your customers at the best value and while using the least amount of resources.

The chief goal of any structural design is to assure human safety. The secondary goal is to lessen prop­erty damage and remain functional if the building must withstand a natural disaster.  Structural design of a cold storage warehouse is fairly straightforward and simplistic in comparison to other types of buildings; however combining all structural fundamentals and considerations specific to cold storage warehouses can become a complex undertaking.

The cold storage building layout should be determined by ease of use.  Consider where are things located relative to personnel accessibility and material handling resources. You should consider things as the receiving and shipping of cold product, building maintenance and worker facilities.

You should consider the size, shape and location of the cold storage storage areas within the building.  Consider particularly the quantity and location of doors and how shipping and receiving areas are to be arranged.  Consider truck access into the property and into the building and parking and whether there is to be rail access. Also, consider where are the mechanical, and battery charging areas, and offices, to be located? Will you have a maintenance shop or parts room?  Will you have pallet storage and repair, fork truck parking and servicing, packaging, stacking, palletizing and wrapping machinery?
used?

The following is a useful outline to help you in the design of your next cold storage facility:

 

02 Design Considerations

  • Discuss the needs of your cold storage facility with your contractor
  • What is the purpose of the building?
  • Parameters
    • What is the use or use(s)
    • Freezer, cooler, dry?
    • Function(s) of the building
    • Form of the building
    • Exterior finishes
    • What is the interior finish level
    • Consider your structural options
      • Structural steel with Insulated Metal Panels
      • Pre-engineered steel with Insulated Metal Panels
      • Cast in place tilt up concrete
      • Precast tilt up concrete
      • Consider durability, cost, thermal performance, and fire rating
      • Exterior insulation or “box-in-a-box?
    • What are your expectations?
  • Consider the height of your freezer or cooler building.
    • It is a better use of land, foundations, and excavation to build higher instead of wider
  • Consider the aisles of your building
    • Narrow aisle, wire guided equipment, will result in the highest pallet density
    • 9′ is tight
    • 10′ is average
    • 11′ is generous
  • Present a sketch of the building and rough floor plan
  • It will be helpful to write even some preliminary specifications to help guide the contractor
  • Understand and explain your process flow
  • Discuss Utilities and mechanical systems:
    • Steam
    • Compressed air
    • Refrigeration
    • Process refrigeration
    • HVAC
    • Waste water
    • Fresh water
    • Electric
    • Fire suppression
  • Discuss Owner provided food service equipment and all necessary utility connections
  • Food Safety Discussion
    • Do you have any special design requirements?
    • Will you want liquid floor coverings?
    • Will your building have wash down requirements?
    • Will your facility need positive pressure or negative pressure?
    • What applicable government licensing are you under?
      • Are you Federally licensed?
    • What product safety requirements are we under?
    • What is your desired temperature?
    • What is your desired humidity?
  • What level of pest control will be needed?
  • What special training will be needed for the construction workers?
  • Refer to Food Current Good Manufacturing Practices (21 CFR Part 110) (GMP)
  • Setting up a HACCP team including members of the plant’s staff
  • Develop Safe Plans of Action to avoid food contamination
  • Develop Checklists for the project:
    • Pre-Construction Checklist / Walk-through
    • Audit Checklist during construction
    • Start Up Safety Checklist / Walk-through
  • Identify storage areas to the contractor:
    • Raw Goods and Ingredients – Grains
    • Raw Goods and Ingredients – Meats
    • Raw Goods and Ingredients – Fats, Oils and Other Liquids
    • Wet Processing
  • Identify Process Areas
    • Dry Processing
    • Wet Processing
    • Cooking
    • Coating
    • Packaging
    • Warehouse
    • Cold Warehouse
    • Utilities
  • Explain the Building Exterior and Grounds
  • Explain requirements for Sanitizing Personnel, Equipment, and materials
    • Tool wash sinks
    • Sanitizing wipes
    • Captive tool program
    • Swab and test as needed
  • Consider fumes and odor from vehicles equipment, tools, and work
    • Ventilation
    • Propane fired equipment
    • Monitor carbon monoxide
    • Ventilation for paints, caulks, solvents, epoxies, coatings
    • Welding smoke
  • Consider receiving of Material Shipments
    • Consider strategic material flow
    • Consider using Just in Time (JIT) methods for material shipments
    • Outside storage: Items should be clean of all debris, stored equipment should be contained and covered, equipment should be placed on cribbing and or pallets, equipment should be monitored for rodent and pest activity
    • Inside storage: Items should be tarped or designated with temporary barricades, monitored for accumulation of dusts and debris, should be cleaned and sanitized as necessary, should be scheduled for inspection by sanitation, should have temp lighting as required, provided with plastic containers to store items for sanitation purposes
  • Fabrication and cutting areas need to be thought out:
    • area should be tarped to contain debris generated by cutting and fabrication activities, area should be monitored for accumulation of dusts and debris, area should be cleaned and sanitized as necessary, area should be scheduled for inspection by sanitation, temp lighting installed as required, items staged in plastic containers for sanitation purposes, welding barricades or shades should be used, temporary ventilation and/or smoke eaters should be used as required to eliminate fumes from welding or painting, inspect arriving equipment for possible, infestation, sanitize new equipment coming into the plant, plan for an equipment sanitizing and drying area
  • Cleanup after construction
    • Clean-up prior to start up
    • Broom, brush, mop
    • Equipment must be sanitized, swabbed, tested, re-sanitized
    • Dust partition walls must be sanitized prior to removal and decide of materials can be re-used
    • Testing in production areas before production
  • Decide on the function and uses of your cold storage facility.
    • Are your products for grocery stores, restaurants, food processors, or for export?
    • Will your cold storage facility have the purpose of freezer storage, cooler storage, cooled repacking?
    • Will you need to palletize inbound orders?
    • Will you do order picking and palletize outgoing orders?
    • Will you handle complete pallets only?
    • Will you do storage freezing, blast freezing, or both in your cold storage facility?
    • Will you need dry storage for corrugated and other products?
    • Consider what size mechanical room will you need?
    • Will you have a retail area of the business?
    • Will you need varying temperatures for various products?
    • Ethylene producing products will need specific venting requirements.
    • Will the cooler storage rooms need periodic wash down?
    • Will you need a wet / thawing room?
    • Will you need humidity control in any of the rooms?
    • Are you allowing for future expansion, alternative business, value added services?
    • Will you have need for convertible storage?
    • Will you need freezer and cooler abilities in the same chamber?
  • Consider needed Employee Facilities
    • Do you need office space for your employees?
    • Will you need a break room?
    • You will need bathrooms
    • Will you need locker rooms?
    • Will you need outdoor rest areas?
    • Will you need a test kitchen?
    • Will you need a conference room?
    • Will you need production offices?
    • Will you need a dock office?
    • How will you control flow of traffic and entry into the cold storage building?
    • Will you need a truckers lounge?
    • Consider lighting requirements and day lighting
    • Consider thermal requirements and zoning controls
    • Consider work stations, their requirements, and their location.
    • Consider the following:
      • toilets
      • bathroom sinks
      • prep sinks
      • water fountains
      • Eye wash stations
      • Emergency shower stations
      • Clothing containment stations
      • Flow of personnel
  • Site Selection
    • Consider the electrical grid.  How much power can the local utilit
    • Consider water supply for domestic and fire suppression
    • Consider gas and sewer facilities
    • How is the truck access to major roads?
    • How is the proximity to major markets, food markets, supply of produce, etc.
    • How is the proximity to food processors, food service, schools, hotels, colleges?
    • Is there room for expansion?
    • Consider local taxes?
    • Consider the municipality
  • Will you want to pursue LEED and other Green Design Parameters
    • The purpose of LEED is to maximize opportunities for integrated, cost-effective adoption of green design and construction strategies, emphasizing human health as a fundamental evaluative criterion for building design, construction and operational strategies. Utilize innovative approaches and techniques for green design and construction.
    • LEED is based on a points system which can qualify you for LEED Silver, Gold, or Platinum.
    • Considers building and site elements
    • Location and Transportation:
      • LEED for Neighborhood Development Location
      • Sensitive Land Protection
      • High Priority Site
      • Surrounding Density and Diverse Uses
      • Access to Quality Transit
      • Bicycle Facilities
      • Reduced Parking Footprint
      • Green Vehicles
    • Sustainable Sites
      • Construction Activity Pollution Prevention
      • Site Assessment
      • Site Development – Protect or Restore Habitat
      • Open Space
      • Rainwater Management
      • Heat Island Reduction
      • Light Pollution Reduction
    • Water Efficiency
      • Outdoor Water Use Reduction
      • Indoor Water Use Reduction
      • Building-Level Water Metering
      • Outdoor Water Use Reduction
      • Indoor Water Use Reduction
      • Cooling Tower Water Use
      • Water Metering
    • Energy and Atmosphere
      • Fundamental Commissioning and Verification
      • Minimum Energy Performance
      • Building-Level Energy Metering
      • Fundamental Refrigerant Management
      • Enhanced Commissioning
      • Optimize Energy Performance
      • Advanced Energy Metering
      • Demand Response
      • Renewable Energy Production
      • Enhanced Refrigerant Management
      • Green Power and Carbon Offsets
    • Materials and Resources
      • Storage and Collection of Recyclables
      • Construction and Demolition Waste Management Planning
      • Building Life-Cycle Impact Reduction
      • Building Product Disclosure and Optimization – Environmental
      • Building Product Disclosure and Optimization – Sourcing of Raw
      • Building Product Disclosure and Optimization – Material Ingredients
      • Construction and Demolition Waste Management
    • Indoor Environmental Quality
      • Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance
      • Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control
      • Enhanced Indoor Air Quality Strategies
      • Low-Emitting Materials
      • Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan
      • Indoor Air Quality Assessment
      • Thermal Comfort
      • Interior Lighting
      • Daylight
      • Quality Views
      • Acoustic Performance
    • Innovation
      • Innovation
      • LEED Accredited Professional
    • Regional Priority
      • Regional Priority: Specific Credit
    • Total Possible Points is 110
  • Determine the type of contract to hold with your contractor
    • Lump Sum / Fixed Price
    • Cost Plus with GMP (decide on markup, with or without shared savings)
    • Time and Materials (decide on markup)
    • Unit Pricing
  • Qualifying Contractors
    • Who have we worked with in the past?
    • Ask for recommendations
    • Contact trade associations for recommendations
    • Stop at construction projects and ask
    • Are they experienced in the type of work?
    • Can they produce acceptable quality?
    • Have they done similar projects?
    • Do they have enough resources?
    • Do they have the financial means?
    • Size of project compared to past projects?
    • What other work are they doing?
    • Safety record?
    • Request safety statistics
    • Number and types of equipment they own
    • Call their references
    • Provide example drawings
    • Cleanup requirements
    • Quality control plan
    • Schedule of work?
    • Research subs on the OSHA website to see their safety record
  • Present your ideas to the contractor
  • Make sure Contractor has sufficient Insurances
    • General liability
    • Vehicle
    • Workers comp
    • Umbrella
    • Pollution
    • Builder’s Risk
    • Offsite materials
    • Professional indemnity
  • Be Conscious of the various type of Permits and Licenses that will be needed
    • Licenses
    • Registrations
    • Qualifications
    • Special taxes
    • Engineering
    • Zoning
    • Health
    • Building
    • Road entrances
    • NPDES
    • Tree clearing
    • Escrow agreements for land development
  • Plan the Construction Activity:
    • Brief overview of the Client
    • Site Access
    • Lay down areas
    • Truck access
    • Low bridges
    • Weak bridges
    • Overview of the schedule
    • Project Rules
    • Brief description of Project
  • Overview of Site Work
    • Fencing
    • Mobilize
    • Erosion and Sediment Control
    • Demo and clearing
    • Earthwork
    • Sanitary piping
    • Storm piping
    • Water piping
    • Fire piping
    • Gas piping
    • Electrical
    • Retention and detention basins
    • Site concrete
    • Stone and paving
    • Landscaping
    • Other work

 

03 Concrete

  • Footings / Foundations
    • Cold storage warehouse footings generally consist of two types; shallow concrete footing systems and deep footing systems. A Geo-technical analysis should be completed at each site to determine a suitable foundation design for the building structure.  This analysis will determine if the shallow surface soils have the bearing capacity to support the weight of the building.  If the surface soils do not, the bearing of the building must be transferred down the the bedrock below. Shallow footing systems consist of independent concrete spread footings and concrete grade beams spanning between spread footings to support the perimeter concrete walls which are typically between 8″ and 12″ thick.  Shallow retaining walls are used to support grade differences such as on the face of a truck dock. Shallow spread footings must be engineered and generally consist of:
      • A linear strip footing down the length of the perimeter wall
      • A spread footing under each concrete pier (for the bearing of the columns)
      • 3000 psi to 5000 psi concrete
      • rebar reinforcing down the length of the footing and across the footing
      • Earth forming or hard forming
    • Deep foundation support systems can be in several forms such as drilled piers, augered piles, and hammered piles.  Drilled piers (also called caissons) are generally larger diameter reinforced underground concrete columns. They can vary in width from 24 inches to 60 inches in diameter and vary in depth from 12 feet to 25 feet deep. Drilled piers are used to increase bearing area therefore provide an anchor against movement of the pier. Augered piles are thin underground cast-in-place concrete columns which are normally used for deeper applications.  They are of a smaller diameter (12”) and can be used of down to 60’ or more.
    • Hammered piles are similar to augered piles in size and depth. They are pre-manufactured and are installed by driving, or “hammering” them into the ground. Groups of piles are required to support concentrated loads such as at building columns. Pile groups are always encased at the top with pile caps and or grades beams to equally distribute the loads and provide lateral support.
    • Floor Slabs
      • Freezer floor slabs require 1) the strength to support the stored product and the equipment that will work in the facility, 2) a layer of insulation to help retain the refrigerated energy, 3) a layer of heat that will help to prevent frost from developing in the soil below. Typically new construction freezer floors consist of the following makeup:
        • compacted sub grade soil
        • 4″ of compacted building grade sand
        • heating system consisting of either warmed glycol in a serpentine tubing system or a warm air ventilation system
        • 3″ concrete sub slab
        • 10 to 20 mil vapor barrier
        • 40 psi DOW board structural insulation
        • 8 to 10 mil slip sheet
        • reinforced concrete floor
        • steel armor joints at doorways by PNA-Inc.
        • sealed with L&M Seal Hard
        • floor joints filled with SpalPro RSF
      • Cooler floor slabs require 1) the strength to support the stored product and the equipment that will work in the facility, 2) a layer of insulation to help retain the refrigerated energy. Typically new construction cooler floors consist of the following makeup:
        • compacted sub grade soil
        • 4″ of compacted building grade sand
        • 10 to 20 mil vapor barrier
        • 40 psi DOW board structural insulation
        • 8 to 10 mil slip sheet
        • reinforced concrete floor
        • steel armor joints at doorways by PNA-Inc.
        • floor joints filled with SpalPro RSF
      • Equipment pads are used to install outdoor equipment at ground level.  These pads can be installed in a “floating” condition which means they will rise and fall with the ground frost up to 1″.  They can also be installed with a perimeter wall which should extend down deeper than the local frost can ever reach.  Typically equipment pads:
        • Are designed by a Professional Engineer
        • consist of 4″ of concrete consisting of 3000 psi to 5000 psi strength
        • are reinforced with either reinforcing bar or reinforcing grid wire
        • Are poured on 4″ of clean stone (no fine grit)
        • Are sloping away from the building by 1/8″ per foot to allow drainage
        • Are broom finished to allow traction
        • Are not sealed
        • Have expansion joint between the pad and building foundation
    • Interior Concrete Curbing is used to protect insulated walls from possible forklift damage.  It is a good idea to use concrete curbing on any insulated walls that are exposed to forklift traffic which negates the need for curbing behind pallet tracking. Concrete curbing:
      • Should be designed by a Professional Engineer
      • is typically 24″ high x 6″ wide
      • Does not need to be keyed into the floor
      • Should be reinforced with rebar that is drilled into the floor on a repeating module
      • Should have linear rebar reinforcing in either 1 or two horizontal runs
      • Should consist of 3000 psi to 5000 psi strength concrete
      • Should have a sloped top
      • Can be painted safety yellow
      • Should have caulk installed at the top of the curb to seal it to the insulated wall panel

       

    • Concrete Ramps
      • Foot Traffic
        • These generally consist of a 4″ thick reinforced concrete slab on a 10 mil vapor barrier on 4″ of clean stone.
      • Forklift Traffic
        • These generally consist of a 6″ thick reinforced concrete slab on a 10 mil vapor barrier on 4″ of clean stone.

 

  • Precast Steps
    • These generally consist of reinforced concrete that are shop formed, with a steel railing that is galvanized or powder coated. Railing must have a handrail and a guard rail.

 

  • Thermal Breaks
    • Freezer: generally the Insulated Metal Panels will create the thermal break around the perimeter of the slab.
    • It is a good idea to use a steel armor joint by PNA-Inc. to create the thermal break at the doorways.
    • Thermal Breaks are critical to ensure that the cold does not creep through the concrete slab into warm areas of the building which will cause condensation.

 

04 Masonry

  • Masonry walls are not common building materials in cold storage buildings however they can be used for ramp construction or foundation wall construction.  Generally 12″ CMU block is used for foundation walls up to the height of the Insulated Metal Panels.

 

05 Metals

  • Anchor Bolt: An anchor bolt is used to attach the steel columns down to the concrete foundations.  There are many varieties of anchor bolts which generally consist of a threaded end, to which a nut and washer can be attached to.  One type of anchor bolt is a cast-in-place anchor bolt which is placed in the wet concrete before it sets.  Another type of anchor bolt is a bent J bolt with a hook on the end. Cast-in-place anchor bolts are the strongest type of fastener, but the casting is difficult, and they are usually only used for heavy machines mounted on poured concrete floors. Another type of anchor bolt is the epoxy anchor bolt.  These consist of a straight bolt that is set into the cured concrete by way of a hammer-drilled hole and epoxy to bond the bolt in place. Epoxy anchor bolts can be difficult to install since the hole must be drilled perfectly, the epoxy has to be mixed, the hole must be clean, and the set time has to be monitored.
  • A Leveling Plate: is a steel bearing plate used to set the elevation and level of structural steel columns.  Leveling plates are usually quite thin (1/4” to 3/16”) and are bedded in a non-shrink grout on top of the concrete pier or footing. When leveling plates are used, the concrete piers or footings can be poured slightly low (1/2″ to 3/4″) to allow the use of the leveling plate.
  • Structural Steel Framing: Low rise warehouses typically require large unobstructed floor spaces with clear heights of between 30’ to 50’. The most appropriate structure is customarily a steel framed building wide span building consisting of steel columns, beams, girts, steel joists, and steel girders. This type of system allows for large building bays which can provide maximum flexibility for storage racking layout. Steel buildings are typically constructed in two types: 1) structural steel, 2) pre-engineered steel.  Structural steel buildings are a system consisting of hot-rolled steel shapes, such as wide-flange beams and cee channels, which are fabricated and assembled into the various building components.  The primary framing structure of a structural steel building is an assembly of I-shaped members, often referred as I-beams.
  • Typical steel building components are as follows:
    • anchor bolts, nuts, washers
    • leveling plates
    • steel vertical columns with base plates
    • wall girts (horizontal members connecting the columns)
    • steel beams
    • steel joist (generally constructed with bar or angle)
    • perimeter angle (around the top of the building for siding attachment)
    • wall bridging (generally made from round bar stock)
    • roof bridging (for bracing from joist to joist and/or squareness of the building)
    • door framing (for stiffening the wall panels to receive a door)
    • steel roof decking, also called “B deck”
    • exterior siding to create diaphragm bracing
  • A Pre-Engineered Steel Building is an assembly of cold-rolled steel components such as flat plates into columns and beams.  In pre-engineered steel buildings, the I beams used are usually formed by welding steel plates together to form the building components. The components are then field-assembled with bolts to form the pre-engineered steel building. Some manufacturers taper the framing members according to the local loading requirements to account for snow and wind loads.
  • The exterior envelope of a cold storage warehouses is most commonly made from insulated metal panels (IMP) which receive their strength from steel wall members called girts.  This helps strengthen the insulated metal panels against deflection due to thermal shift and wind loads. The steel wall girts hung on the exterior steel columns which are most capable of supporting the roof loads wind loads.
  • The structure is further strengthened through a resisting system made of the roof diaphragm (generally steel roof deck) and vertical resisting components which translate loads into the concrete foundations.
  • The steel roof decking is engineered to work as a horizontal bracing element which gain stiffness from being fastened into the steel roof framing system.
  • Although various options exist, the favored steel system for cold storage construction remains to be structural steel.
  • Pallet Racks
    • Some common types are as follows:
      • Single Deep Select Racking
      • Double Deep Select Racking
      • Double Deep Drive in Racking
  • A Mezzanine is a raised steel platform that is below the roof line of a building.  Steel mezzanines can be either supported with their own columns and footings or hung on the primary steel columns of the building. A mezzanine steel frame system is typically covered in steel b decking and then a concrete floor is poured.  Mezzanines can create additional space under the same roof of a building and are a a very quick and cost effective way to generate new space without the expense a new building. Steel mezzanine components are largely the same as the steel building components listed above.
  • The term Miscellaneous Steel represents all types of incidental steel that is not part of the structure.  This can include:
    • steel bollards or goal posts used for protecting doorways which are generally made from pipe steel
    • supporting steel for hanging HVAC and refrigeration equipment from the roof structure which is generally made from steel angles or cee channels
    • steel curbing to protect walls from pallets and equipment which is generally made from steel angles
    • dock pit walls which is generally made from thin plate steel
    • hinge plates for vertical dock levelers which is usually made from a large 12″ tall cee channel
    • horizontal bump guards for protecting hung HVAC equipment from forklifts which is generally made from hollow structural steel (HSS) such as pipe or tube
    • and more
  • Structural Steel Design Considerations:
    • Consider governing building codes and local amendments (JHA or jurisdiction having authority)
    • Are there special design loads required by the owner?
    • Consider special design loads required by insurance carriers
    • Effect of all equipment on the structure (HVAC, refrigeration, piping, lights, solar)
    • Define areas of intended future expansion
    • Review of geotechnical recommendations
    • What is availability of materials?
    • What is skill of available workforce?
    • Consider thermal continuity through the steel and into the sub-slab and warmer rooms
    • Consider the roof slope and drainage
    • Consider the roof deflection
    • Consider the wall and girt deflection
    • Building expansion joints
    • Slab on grade control joints
    • Consider vibration of elevated equipment and mezzanines
    • Corrosion and moisture control
  • Bollards and Goal Posts
    • These are used to protect the sides of doors, personnel walk ways, and other critical objects.  Bollards and goal posts are usually constructed out of 4″ or 6″ round steel schedule 40 pipe.  While bollards usually project up 48″ above finished floor, goal posts protect the entire side and head of the door from impacts from forklifts.  For the bollards or goal posts to work best they should be located 1″ inside the jamb of the door and 1″ below the head of the door.  Both are generally cored into the floor 6″ deep and anchored with some wet cement around the steel.  Both should get a painted coating of safety yellow to make them high visibility.

 

06 Carpentry

    • There is generally not much carpentry in a cold storage building envelope.  However, steel stud framing and drywall are common materials used for partition walls for employee welfare rooms.  Insulated Metal Panels are also common materials used for partition walls of break rooms, offices, and bathrooms. A common vendor for steel studs is ClarkDietrich and a common vendor for drywall is USG.

 

07 Thermal and Moisture

  • Column Insulation Blocks are used to insulate the frozen steel from the concrete foundations.  They are the same size as the base plate of the column and sit underneath the column.  They consist of a rigid closed cell polyurethane and are pre-drilled according to shop drawings.  They have a density of 40 pounds per cu. ft. and exceed a compressive strength of 1800 psi at 2% deflection.
  • Roofing on a freezer typically consists of a membrane type roof on rigid insulation.  Over the steel decking on the freezer section install three layers of Carlisle or Firestone 3” – 20psi Polyisocyanurate insulation, total R-Value 52.20 mechanically attached to the decking with 5 fasteners field, 10 fasteners perimeter and 32 fasteners corners. To meet FM 1- 75 the perimeter area will be 15 foot from the edge.
  • Roofing on a cooler also typically consists of a membrane type roof on rigid insulation.  On the cooler area install two layers of Carlisle or Firestone 3” – 20psi Polyisocyanurate insulation with a total R-Value of 34.80 mechanically attached to the decking with 5 fasteners field, 10 fasteners perimeter and 32 fasteners corners to meet FM 1-75 the perimeter area will be 8 foot from the edge.
  • Spray Foam insulation is then applied with the Dow Froth Pac 200 at the perimeter of all
    roof sections, freezer areas and cold dock areas as detailed.
  • At the perimeter of the roof rake edge and gutter edge on both roof sections install a 9” pressure sensitive flashing in bonding adhesive and extend the membrane roof over the panel cap and secure to provide a vapor seal per Carlisle details prior to the installation of the gravel stop or gutter system.
  • IMP siding
    • Insulated Metal Panel Systems are perfect for thermally controlled buildings such as food processing buildings, cold storage freezers, coolers and packing facilities. Insulated Metal Panel Systems are generally used in temperature controlled environments where protection of finished product is extremely important. Insulated Metal Panel Systems are the most common wall system used in temperature controlled buildings.
      An Insulated Metal Panel (IMP) is a strong wall panel consisting of a urethane foam core, which is sandwiched between two pieces of a rolled, profiled coated metal that provides a strong building enclosure. The metal panel skin creates a strong vapor barrier when the panel to panel joint is caulked. The panel facing can be manufactured in various colors and textures. Insulated Metal Panel Systems provide a beautiful combination of weather and vapor protection along with fantastic thermal insulation. One of the best manufacturers of Insulated Metal Panels on the market is MetlSpan.  Their CF42 panels with Mesa Profile is ideal for building exteriors while the CF45 panel is ideal for interior partitions.

08 Openings

  • Walk Doors in cold storage environments are very important to maintain thermal control, control security, but allow passage through the building. A few great manufacturers of cold storage walk doors are Chase Doors and Jamison Doors.
  • Overhead Doors that are commonly used on a dock building are made by Haas Door. Their 800 Series Door features a full 3″ pressure-injected core of high-density CFC-free polyurethane foam insulation with a calculated R-Value of 25.8 — the highest in the commercial door industry.
  • High Speed Doors can be either a roll up panel or a sliding panel.  Two excellent manufacturers of high speed doors are Rytec Door and Albany Door.  Controls for these doors can be floor loop, motion sensor, wall button, remote control, or pull cord.
  • Sliding Doors are a hard panel door that can be manual or powered with an operator.  are Chase Doors and Jamison Doors both make excellent sliding doors.
  • Impact Doors are doors made to hit with a forklift or pallet jack.  Chase Doors has a great line of impact doors.
  • Heated Windows are sometimes important to view into a cold storage room. ThermoSeal makes a good heated window.

 

09 Finishes

  • walls
  • floor
  • roof deck

 

10 Specialties

  • signage
  • toilet partitions
  • fire extinguishers
  • lockers
  • commercial awnings

 

11 Equipment

  • dock lights
  • dock levelers
  • dock seals
  • dock locks
  • Truck Docks
    • Should the dock be refrigerated or not refrigerated?
    • Should the dock be insulated to allow for refrigeration?
    • Consider accommodating various types of trucks.  Tractor trailer? Box trucks?
    • Type of dock leveler?
    • Consider Lighting
    • Your dock will need edge guards and bumpers
    • Your dock doors should be heavily insulated.
    • Do you want windows in the dock doors?
    • Will you need floor staging in your dock?

 

21 Fire Suppression

 

22 Plumbing

  • Supply piping
  • Drainage piping
  • Vents
  • Gas systems
  • Air systems
  • Fixtures: floor drains, toilets, bath sinks, mop sinks, water fountains, 3 compartment sinks, food prep sinks, equipment connections, hot water heaters, hose bib

 

22 Refrigeration

  • Heat Loads
    • Number of pallets
    • Weight per pallet
    • Dimensions of pallet
    • Will the incoming product be fresh or frozen?
    • If the product is fresh, what kind of further processing will be needed?
    • What is the type of product?
    • How much fresh product (lbs) will be entering per day and at what temperature?
    • Will you need humidity control in any cool rooms?
    • Freezing
      • Will you need storage freezing or blast freezing?
      • What is the type of product to be frozen?
      • What is the quantity to be frozen?
      • What is the entering temperature?
      • What is the target temperature?
      • How much product is entering per day?
      • How much frozen product is leaving per day?
      • In what amount of time must the product be frozen?
      • How is the product packaged?
      • Is the product shrink wrapped?
  • Explanation of Split or Packaged Refrigeration Systems
    • A Packaged Refrigeration System consists of a compressor and a condenser combined in a single factory-packaged unit.  Other electronics and control elements are also included in a cabinet. This unit is called a “condensing unit”. It is completely self-contained. It is engineered to match capacities with one or two specific evaporative units. The installation consists of mounting the condensing unit, typically on the roof, immediately above where the evaporator will be hung from the ceiling in the refrigerated space.
  • Explanation of Central Plant Systems
    • In a central plant system, a machine room and compressors operate in close proximity to pressure vessels and and other system components.  All are interconnected by field-fabricated piping. A condenser (either water cooled or air cooled) is mounted outdoor near the compressors. The evaporators are located in the refrigerated spaces throughout
      the plant with the interconnecting piping running between them and the central machine room.
  • Process Cooling
  • The factors that influence the cost of operation of a refrigerating system are infiltration, defrost, the refrigerating system efficiency, based mainly on the system type and the refrigerant. Other factors that influence plant operation are operating procedures, typical weather, product temperatures, and product inventory turnover.

 

26 Electrical

  • service
  • distribution
  • power feeds
  • lighting
  • solar
  • generator
    • entire facility? only specific rooms? specific equipment? Prioritize.

 

100 Equipment Handling

 

101 Batteries

 

102 Automated Systems

 

103 Maintenance of Cold Storage Facilities

 

Cold Storage Listings

From the Blog

  • IARW Announces 2016 List of World’s Larg...

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    Source: http://www.gcca.org/ Alexandria, Virginia, July 6, 2016 – The International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses (IARW) has released its annual Global Top 25 List of the largest temperature-controlled warehousing and logistics providers in the world. Accompanying the Global Top 25 is the IARW North American Top 25 List. IARW has also compiled a list of the largest […]

  • Eastern Propak in final approval stages ...

    by on July 7, 2016 - 0 Comments

    Source: www.producenews.com Glassboro, NJ-based Eastern Propak LLC is in its final approval stages for its 65,000-square-foot facility expansion, which will house cold storage, repacking operations and administrative offices. In late June, General Manager Jeff Danner told The Produce News the building plans have been approved. “’We’re in the final processes of assignment, permits and other red […]

  • Imperial Logistics expands facility for ...

    by on July 7, 2016 - 0 Comments

    Source: www.stattimes.com July 06, 2016: Imperial Logistics has invested in a new, multimillion, state-of-the art warehousing and additional office space at its Centurion head office. Lara Haigh, managing director, reveals that the business needed additional capacity following its diversification into the pharmaceutical wholesaling, medical devices and animal health markets. As a result of the expansion, which […]

  • Food and Beverage Cold Chain Logistics I...

    by on July 7, 2016 - 0 Comments

    Source: http://www.einnews.com/ About the Food and Beverage Cold Chain Logistics Market A cold chain is a type of supply chain that involves the storage and transportation of temperature-sensitive goods. Thermal and refrigerated packaging methods are used to help with the transportation and storage of temperature-sensitive goods; extensive logistics planning ensures the integrity of these goods. A […]

  • Panama To Open Expanded Canal On June 26...

    by on April 7, 2016 - 0 Comments

    Source: http://www.foodlogistics.com/ Panama will open its newly expanded multi-billion dollar shipping canal on June 26, nearly two years behind schedule. Read more: link to article

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